the association between pesticides (a carcinogenic chemical) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Medicine Case-Control Study Questions

A case-control study was conducted to examine the association between pesticides (a carcinogenic
chemical) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A total of 4740 cases and 4740 controls were selected
for inclusion in the study. Assuming that 4600 of those with ALS were exposed to pesticides and 626 of
those without ALS fibrosis were not exposed to pesticides, use this information to answer the following
questions

 

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a) Set up a 2 x 2 contingency table then calculate and interpret the appropriate measure of
association

b) Gender was considered as either a potential confounder or effect modifier (interaction variable)
in the study. The following data were gathered from the study participants. Calculate and
interpret the appropriate measure of association for males and females
Exposure to pesticides
Males Females
ALS No ALS ALS No ALS
Yes 4,500 4,095 100 19
No 50 455 90 171

c) Is gender a confounder or an effect modifier (interaction variable)? Briefly justify your answer

d) Smoking was considered as a potential confounder or effect modifier (interaction). The data was
stratified by smoking. Calculate and interpret the appropriate measure of association for each
stratum
Pesticides
Exposure
Smokers Non-smokers
ALS No ALS ALS No ALS
YES 1786 730 934 1300
No 1400 1840 620 870

e) Is smoking a confounder or an effect modifier (interaction variable)? Briefly justify your answer

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