Nursing Reading Research Literature Homework

Type your answers to the following questions using complete sentences and correct grammar, spelling, and syntax. The guidelines and grading rubric for this assignment may be found in Doc Sharing.

Title: RRL#2

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The following questions pertain to:Sanford, J., Townsend-Rocchicciolli,J.,Horigan, A., &Hall, P. (2011). A process of decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure.Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(1), 55–70.

  • What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?

The inclusion criteria stated that a person participating in the study was supposed to be involved in giving care to a patient. In addition, the caregiver was supposed to be related to the patient with HF and be actively involved in providing at least one activity of the patient’s daily living or assisting them with two key activities of their daily living.

  • What was the setting for the study?

The study was conducted in the Southeastern parts of the United States of America. It was carried out in a hospital setting to target the HF patients presented in cardiology offices, adult day care facilities and inpatient hospital units.

  • Was the sample adequate for the research design that was selected?

The sample is adequate because the provision of home-based care is similar in almost all situations involving HF. This means that there is homogeneity of the care giving practices, conditions and outcomes. Therefore, the sample population is adequate.

  • Describe the data collection procedure.

First, the researchers obtained informed consent from the participants. Then, the developed and conducted unstructured open-ended interviews in mutually agreed locations that had a high level of privacy. The researchers used audiotyping to record the interviews. Questions were asked as the discussion of the illness of the family member continued. Interviewers were involved in keeping memos about the experience of the participants. Keypoints were noted.

  • What did the authors say about the reliability and validity of their data collection and analysis?

The validity of the data collection and analysis method was enhanced by using the NVivo quality software program. In addition, coding of the data line was done by independent researcher for each interview. Then, the researchers would meet to develop the most accurate data categories.

  • What demographic information was reported?

The researchers reported information relating to the answers given by the participants based on their gender, age, ethnicity/race and the relationship with the patient.

  • What were the variables that were studied?

The researchers studied a number of variables such as the actualization of the problem, seeking of information/output, reflection, decision choice and evaluation of the choice, validation and influences.

  • How were the data analyzed after collection? Was there any special software used?

Data analysis was conducted using more than one method. First, the NVIvo software was used. Secondly, individual researchers did the coding independently before finding the most appropriate data codes. A theoretical model was then developed and used to establish validity. Theoretical perspectives were used for triangulation of the data. Inferences and conclusions were obtained from the triangulated data.

  • Discuss the use of any figures, graphs, and tables. Was the information conveyed in an understandable and meaningful way?

Figures, graphs and tables were not used in the study. Nevertheless, information was conveyed through statements and in a meaningful way.

  • Discuss the authors’ conclusions. Do you feel these conclusions are based on the data that they collected?

The researchers concluded that HF is a critical and complex condition that requires care givers to change their lifestyles and help their sick relatives modify their living styles. Patients and their family members must be involved in decision making procedures. These conclusions are based on the data obtained from the interviews.

The following questions pertain to: Schwarz, K., Mion, P., Hudock, D., &Litman, G. (2008). Telemonitoring of heart failure patients and their caregivers: A pilot randomized controlled study. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(1), 18–26.

  • What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?

The participants were patients with the condition and aged 65 years and above. They were selected after their conditions were verified using the standard methods of verifying HF.

  • What was the setting for the study?

The study was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital with 537 beds located in the Northeastern parts of Ohio.

  • Was the sample adequate for the research design that was selected?

The researchers selected 102 patients out of the total562 individuals targeted in the healthcare facility. This is an adequate sample because it represents the total population of HF patients in the region.

  • Describe the data collection procedure.

Consent was obtained from the participants. Interviews were conducted in the patients’ homes within 10 days. Randomization was done to place patients in different groups.

 

  • How did the authors address the reliability and validity of their data collection and analysis of the instruments used?

Frequent checks were conducted to enhance validity

  • What limitations did the authors face in data collection? How could these have been lessened or minimized?

The study was limited to the patient classification developed by the NYHA. Secondly, it did not measure the severity of comorbidities. In addition, the specific number of visits to the patients were not recorded. It was necessary to minimize these limitations by carrying out a similar study, but including measures to expand the classification method, measure comorbidities and recording the number of visits.

 

  • What demographic information was reported by the authors?

The researchers based their study on gender, age, methods of treatment and the number of hospital admissions/readmissions.

 

  • What were the variables that were studied?

Variables studied were depression symptoms, days before readmission, quality of life and caregiver mastery

 

  • Were there any inferential tests used in the analysis of data in this study? If so, what were they?

Inferential test was done using the statistical P value

 

  • Discuss the use of any figures, graphs, and tables. Was the information conveyed in an understandable and meaningful way?

Tables were used to present statistical information regarding all the three variables. A figure was used to present the algorithm for studying the participants.

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