questions

Question 1 What is the main research question of the study? (1 sentence)
Question 2 In your own words, summarise the key findings of this study (3-4 sentences)
Question 3 What is the source population of this study? (1-2 sentences)
Question 4 Describe how the cases were defined and selected in this study (1-2 sentences)
Question 5 Describe the process of how the controls were selected for this study (1-2 sentences)
Question 6 Based on what you know about selecting controls, do you believe that the controls selected in this study are appropriate? Please justify (2-3 sentences)
Question 7 What type of bias may have affected the selection of cases in this study? Please justify (1-2 sentences)
Question 8 How was the exposure of interested measured/defined in participants? (1-2 sentences
Question 9 What types of bias, typically impacting case-control studies, were avoided by classifying the exposure and outcome data based on medical records? (1 sentence)
Question 10
a) Describe a possible way in which measurement bias may have occurred in this study when classifying participants as either having or not having depression? (2-3 sentences)
b) Would the bias described in Question 10a be better described as differential or non-differential measurement/misclassification bias? Please justify why (1-2 sentences)
Question 11 Table 3 (men) and Table 4 (women) show associations between the use of tricyclic antidepressants (yes/no; by mean daily dose; and by duration) and risk of ischaemic heart disease. What do the 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CIs) related to tricyclic depression use (overall, dose and duration) tell us about the likely prevalence of anti-depressant use in men relative to women? Please justify your answer with examples from the Tables. [2-3 sentences]
Question 12 Which confounders were accounted for in this study and how was this done? (1 paragraph)
Question 13
Do you think that the authors accounted for all confounders relevant for the association under investigation? Please justify with examples from this study, and others. (1paragraph)
Question 14: What stratified analysis was undertaken?What did the results of this analysis show? (1 paragraph)
Question 15:Draw a causal diagram between depression and ischaemic heart disease, incorporating the variables smoking status, sex and antidepressant medication, as described in the study.
Question 16 Based on your critical examination of the study, would you consider this study to be internally valid? Please justify your decision by summarising the likely roles chance, bias and confounding have on the measure of association (as explored in this assignment and using your own critical appraisal skills). (2-4 paragraphs).
Question 17 Do you think the findings of this study are generalisable to other populations? Please justify your answer (1 paragraph)
Question 18 Did the authors attempt to explore a dose-response relationship in this study? Please justify.(2-3 sentences
Question 19 Are the findings consistent with other evidence, particularly evidence from studies of similar or more powerful study design? Please justify with reference to the literature (1-2 paragraphs)
Question 20 Of all Bradford-Hill’s criteria for causality, the criterion of temporality is the only one that is essential to demonstrate causality. What is meant by temporality? Do you think this study has established a temporal relationship? Please justify. (3-4 sentences)

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