Nursing Research Article Critique

The Effect of Reported Sleep,Perceived Fatigue, and Sleepiness on Cognitive Performance in a Sample of Emergency Nurses

Research Article Critique Questions 1 – 4: Research Problem and Purpose. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 2, 5, and 12) of the qrticle The Effect of Reported Sleep,Perceived Fatigue, and Sleepiness on Cognitive Performance in a Sample of Emergency Nurses:
1. Which choices below best reflect the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?
a.    The 12-hour shift is past the point where safe decision-making may be expected, and both the Agency for Health Research and Quality and the Institute of Medicine have since recommended limiting the length of nurses’ shifts.
b.    High demand work settings are associated with increased fatigue, which can impair nurses’ attentiveness and ability not only to recognize potential errors they might commit but also to recognize and mitigate the errors of others, including physicians.
c.    There is a lack of research on the sleep patterns of emergency nurses and the effects of disturbed sleep and fatigue on their cognitive abilities and susceptibility to medical errors.
d.    Insufficient sleep and inadequate recovery time from long hours and shift work affect a nurse’s ability to provide safe, effective patient care and increase risks to personal safety.

2.    Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?
a. To explore the relationship between reported sleep quality, perceived fatigue and sleepiness, and cognitive performance in a sample of emergency nurses.
b. Timed cognitive performance was measured by the speed and accuracy for 3 weight-based medication calculations that are frequently performed in emergency nursing practice.
c. Further studies have demonstrated that insufficient sleep and inadequate recovery time from long hours and shift work affect a nurse’s ability to provide safe, effective patient care and increase risks to personal safety.
d. A purpose statement is not clearly offered by the authors in this article.

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3.    According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following statements are important when considering the significance and relevance of a study’s problem and purpose? (Select all that apply.)
a. Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?
b. Does it consider ethical principles in its design?
c. Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings?
d. Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study?
e. Does it promote theory testing or development?
f. Does it identify extraneous variables?

4.   When considering the feasibility of a study’s problem and purpose, Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment.   Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article? (Select all that apply)
a. Funding sources for the study were clearly identified in the article.
b. The author’s credentials to design and conduct research are described.
c. Evidence of protection of the subjects’ rights was mentioned in this article.
d. 100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.

Questions 5 – 7: Review of the Literature. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 6 & 12.)
5.   According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL):
a. Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem
b. Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem
c. Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built
d. To explain the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.

6.   Select three MAJOR topics covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:
a.    Studies of worker fatigue in the military and commercial trucking industries suggest that long hours, especially extending into overnight, can be hazardous in terms of the potential for errors due to sleepiness and reduced vigilance.
b.    Emergency care settings are chaotic environments, where there is high patient turnover, constantly changing priorities and frequent changes in patient condition.
c.    There is a lack of research on the sleep patterns of emergency nurses and the effects of disturbed sleep and fatigue on their cognitive abilities and susceptibility to medical errors.
d.    Participants were asked to complete an online survey that included questions about participant and hospital demographics, nurses’ work schedules, reported sleep patterns and levels of fatigue, cognitive performance measures, and routine activities of daily living.
e.    A quantitative correlational design was used to explore the relationship between nurses’ reported sleep patterns, perceived sleepiness and fatigue, and their ability to carry out timed cognitive tasks.
f.    The work schedules of emergency nurses (ENs) are characterized by increasing demands, irregular shifts, and long hours — all of which challenge their mental and physical stamina.

7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the “Methods”) is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article. This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criterion.   Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? (HINT-look for references in the ROL that are between 2017-2013.)
a. 3
b. 6
c. 9
d. 12

Questions 8 – 10: Study Framework. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 7 & 12)
8.   Which one of these statements best describes this study’s research framework?
a.   This study has an implicit framework, which is not fully developed.
b.   The 12-hour shift is past the point where safe decision-making may be expected, and both the Agency for Health Research and Quality and the Institute of Medicine have since recommended limiting the length of nurses’ shifts.
c.    The Joint Commission’s 2011 Sentinel Event Alert on healthcare worker fatigue and patient safety states that shift length and work schedules have a significant effect on healthcare providers’ quantity and quality of sleep and, consequently, on their job performance, as well as on the safety of their patients and their individual safety.
d.   High demand work settings are associated with increased fatigue, which can impair nurses’ attentiveness and ability not only to recognize potential errors they might commit but also to recognize and mitigate the errors of others, including physicians.

9.    According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), nursing uses theories to organize their body of knowledge and establish what is known about a phenomenon. Elements of a theory that may be found in a nursing research article include: (Select all that apply.)
a. concepts: the basic element of a theory (also known as a construct or variable).
b. research problem: the identified gap in the theory.
c. dependent variable: what is operationally measured by the theory.
d. relational statements: clarify the relationships that exist between concepts.
e. descriptive design: the quantitative research design used to describe a theory.

10. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), a(n) __________________is an abstract logical structure of meaning, such as a portion of a theory which guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge.
a. phenomena
b. grand nursing theory
c. relational statement
d. study framework

Questions 11 – 15: Research objectives, questions, or hypotheses and research variables. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 5 & 12)
11.   On page 42, the authors state that one of the research objectives, questions, or hypotheses was: “Is there a relationship between ENs’ daytime sleepiness and performance in timed cognitive tests?
This is best described as a
a. Research objective
b. Research question
c. Research hypothesis
d. None of the above

12.   Which of these are considered to be MAJOR research variables in this study. (Select all that apply)
a. subjective sleep quality
b. psychological stress
c. self-efficacy
d. perceived fatigue and sleepiness
e. cognitive performance

13.   What is the conceptual or theoretical definition (as defined in the review of literature section) of the following study variable: cognitive performance.
a.    Emergency care settings are chaotic environments, where there is high patient turnover, constantly changing priorities and frequent changes in patient condition.
b.    Insufficient sleep and inadequate recovery time from long hours and shift work affect a nurse’s ability to provide safe, effective patient care and increase risks to personal safety.
c.    Eligibility criteria required that study participants were English speaking, currently licensed ENs working at least 1 shift per week in a US emergency department (ED).
d.   The conceptual or theoretical definition of cognitive performance is not clearly provided in the review of literature section.

14.   What is the operational definition (as defined in the methods section) of the following study variable: subjective sleep quality.
a.   The operational definition of subjective sleep quality was not clearly provided in the methods section.
b.   The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)
c.    Timed cognitive performance was measured by the speed and accuracy for 3 weight-based medication calculations that are frequently performed in emergency nursing practice.
d.   Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)

15.   Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study? (Select all that apply.)
a. age
b. gender
c. zip code
d. certification status
e. primary ED role
f. years of ED experience

Questions 16- 19: Research Design (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 1, 8, & 12)
16.   Which phrase best describes the research design of this study?
a. Descriptive
b. Correlational
c. Quasi-experimental
d. Experimental
e. Mixed methods

17.    Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?
a.    Cross-sectional design
b.    Longitudinal design
c.    None of the above

18.   Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?
a.   The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) used in the study may be considered a treatment or intervention.
b.   Timed cognitive performance was measured by the speed and accuracy for 3 weight-based medication calculations that are frequently performed in emergency nursing practice.
c.    Nurses’ sleep patterns were recorded each day after the intervention for a month.
d.   This study was not designed with a treatment or intervention.

19.   Does the author specifically mention that a pilot or pilot study was done prior to conducting this study?
a. Yes
b. No

20.   The authors indicate on page 42 that the study was reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review board and was completed in accordance with ethical standards set forth in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. This indicates than an IRB gave approval to conduct the research. In addition, an informed consent was provided to each participant. Per Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following would NOT be considered essential information for informed consent? (Select all that apply.)
a.   a statement of the research purpose and any long-term goals of the study
b.   a copy of the abstract of the article that will be used in the publishing journal.
c.   an explanation of the procedures to be followed in the study
d.   a complete list of references to be used in the study.
e assignment with 20 questions from an article.

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